Ground-granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS or GGBFS) is obtained by quenching molten iron slag (a by-product of iron and steel-making) from a blast furnace in water or steam, to produce a glassy, granular product that is then dried and ground into a fine powder.
GGBFS is used to make durable concrete structures in combination with ordinary portland cement and/or other pozzolanic materials. GGBFS has been widely used in Europe, and increasingly in the United States and in Asia (particularly in Japan and Singapore) for its superiority in concrete durability, extending the lifespan of buildings from fifty years to a hundred years.
Concrete made with GGBFS cement sets more slowly than concrete made with ordinary Portland cement, depending on the amount of GGBFS in the cementitious material, but also continues to gain strength over a longer period in production conditions. This results in lower heat of hydration and lower temperature rises, and makes avoiding cold jointseasier, but may also affect construction schedules where quick setting is required.
Use of GGBS significantly reduces the risk of damages caused by alkali–silica reaction (ASR), provides higher resistance to chloride ingress — reducing the risk of reinforcement corrosion — and provides higher resistance to attacks by sulfate and other chemicals.